kammurishiromuku wild return business
kammurishiromuku is family of rare gray starling inhabiting only Bali of Indonesia, and the extinction in the wild is felt uneasy about (as of December, 2016 81 number of the habitation in the wild). We work on breeding lower breeding for kammurishiromuku maintenance in Preservation and Research Center, City of Yokohama positively and are raising about 100 of them now.
In March, 2003, Yokohama-shi concluded agreement document which cooperated with maintenance of kammurishiromuku with the Republic of Indonesia and received adoption of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) grass-roots technical cooperation business based on this in April, 2004. Afterwards, we dispatched specialist from acceptance and Japan of member of training in Republic of Indonesia and performed protection activity and breeding, breeding in Indonesia, technical cooperation about environmental conservation every year until 2014. In addition, we sent 160 kammurishiromuku to tamansafari Indonesia of zoo in Java which managed lineage of breeding facility of Bali barato national park that was habitat and the chicken so far.
Breeding technology of Bali barato national park improved, and protection activity that collaborated with inhabitants around the habitat has been started by past activity. In 2013, maintenance plan of comprehensive kammurishiromuku is devised, and full-scale wild return activity is carried out now.
Result of the results of many generations breeding based on lineage management of kammurishiromuku in such a Preservation and Research Center and wild return activity with the Republic of Indonesia was evaluated, and, in May, 2015, "the 29th Koga Prize" was awarded by nonprofit foundation Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Koga Prize is established in commemoration of achievements of Director Ueno Zoo first generation, Dr. Tadamichi Koga in Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums's former chairpersons which greatly contributed to protection increase of precious animal in 1986 and is prize given breeding of precious animal in particular for zoo and aquarium which there was of achievement.
Kagu arts and sciences round table conference
In commemoration of the Yokohama municipal administration 100th anniversary, one pair of kagu was donated to Yokohama-shi in May, 1989 by the territory government in southern New Caledonia. In addition, Yokohama-shi and the territory government in southern New Caledonia conclude "interchange statement of mutual agreement about wild animal of Yokohama-shi and the territory government in southern New Caledonia" in 1995 and change the arts and sciences interchange and animal about maintenance of kagu which is endemic species of New Caledonia and other precious animals.
On 22nd, the eleventh kagu arts and sciences round table conference was held in New Caledonia in August, 2008 and announced result of environmental administration of Yokohama-shi and breeding, study of rare birds of New Caledonia in Preservation and Research Center. In addition, in the meeting, we put discussion on well-informed person of each country widely and give result of interchange.
In addition, long-term plan (kagu recovery plan) until 2020 that expert of every field cooperates with the goal of improving the number of the habitation of kagu in New Caledonia and assumes that we work on life investigation of kagu, improvement of biotope purpose is put up. This plan advances smoothly, and it is desired earnestly that the number of the habitation of kagu improves.
When judgment of subspecies and kind is difficult, we may identify sub-species of inspection individual by DNA analysis from appearance of breeding animal.
As a lot of DNA (base) sequence of mt (mitochondria) DNA of the animals and plants are registered, for DNA databases such as DDBJ (National Institute Genetics), we analyze genetic base sequence on mtDNA of inspection individual and, in comparison with DNA sequence in database, judge subspecies of inspection individual.
After 1999, we performed subspecies judgment, kind judgment about koala (Kanazawa Zoo), Asian elephant (ZOORASIA), falcon (Nogeyama Zoo), raccoon dog (yagaisaifun).
Close relation-related analysis
In animals raised in plural groups where male is, father and son relations may be inarticulate. Therefore, using microsatellite DNA seasonal polymorphism, we try father and son evaluation.
With DNA which combination of 2 bases arrangement including AG and CT is repeated from several times to dozens of times as for microsatellite DNA, and formed a line, the repeated number is extremely sequence to be rich for variation. Therefore we are used for personal identity and parent and child judgment well.
In Preservation and Research Center, we try parent and child judgment about kangaroos and Humboldt penguin which crowd in Yokohama City Univ. Zoo, and are raised.
Male and female distinction of birds
As birds need kind having difficulty in distinction of the sex from appearance, we carry out sex distinction using the PCR method about chicken raising at zoo in the city.
There is advantage such as rarely giving chicken damage because sex judgment is easy for distinguishing, and the nature by the PCR method is certain and uses only a little body tissue (shaft of a quill or blood) again.
We amplify gene on W chromosome which there is only to hen with the nature by the PCR method distinguishes by the PCR method and by confirming presence of W chromosome, judge male and female of inspection individual.
Using 17 kinds of sets of primers, we performed sex distinction about stork (Yokohama Zoo), chirifuramingo (Nogeyama Zoo), 156 kinds of birds including penguins (zoos, aquariums of the whole country) so far from 1999.
We measure sex hormone taking a shit of the cause, animal of cooperation of department of Gifu University application biological science animal breeding studies laboratory. We put up breeding plan if we understand breeding animal reproduction menstruation and it is settled and can comprise the pregnancy for childbirth early.
Generally, we measure hormone in blood, but, in the case of animal, animal which can collect blood is limited. It becomes big stress for animal to be stabbed in needle. In addition, human being is accompanied with danger when we collect blood of large animal. Therefore we measure sex hormone using feces of animal which we can easily obtain.
After sex hormone being secreted by the ovary or the placenta, testis, and having caused various kinds of physiological functions to bloodstream visiting the body, we are metabolized in liver and are excreted as feces and urine. Therefore we can predict change of sex hormone secreted in the body when we gather feces continuously and we extract sex hormone from feces which gathered and measure.
Cryopreservation of gamete
Preservation and Research Center cryopreserves gametes of wild animal to liquid nitrogen of -196 degrees Celsius since open. Because it becomes possible to store this technique semipermanently with living in cell, it is the extinction means to save kind of wild animal facing. In addition, it is big advantage that we collect sperm and ovum from crossbreeding and animal which died without moving big animal, and can save.
We collected gamete from Malaysia tapir, Borneo orangutan, 50 kinds or more animals including koala and, mainly on breeding animal of three municipal zoos, saved until now. Artificial insemination technology using preservation and that of gamete has been already in use in Homo sapiens and domestic animals, but species establishing technically is counted about wild animal and pushes forward study for practical use.
List of Preservation and Research Center gamete bank preservation species (PDF: 204KB)
From March, 2014, we set up "gamete bank" of (public corporation) Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA) and perform storage of gamete of precious animal which zoos of the whole country raise. It is aimed for dangerous dispersion from disasters and plans promotion of artificial breeding technology of precious animal, study by JAZA having jurisdiction over national precious resources, and pushing forward utilization at zoo and is intended that we push forward preservation of the country breeding species.
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