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Basic knowledge of route bus

Last update date March 25, 2019

About basic item about route bus (carryall) business, we compiled way of thinking and rule.

Route bus is said to be labor-intensive industry (industry with high ratio that personnel expenses account for), and personnel expenses occupy approximately 61% of expenses (※) that it costs for service. The remainder is vehicle of bus, fuel charges (light oil), tax and premium, administrative expense (desk work expense necessary for management as company).
※ The H26 12 a year moon Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism investigation

We stop by, but expense of about 680 yen (※ 2) suffers from length of efficiency of service and business distance of line, characteristic along line though we do service (business) of 1km in around Yokohama (Keihin block (※ 1)).
Therefore, from the starting point including station to terminal, about 4,800 yen hangs to operate line of about 7km, and when it is cash user, about 23 get on, and the income and expenditure is the correct situation.
※1 Keihin block: Tokyo special ward, Mitaka-shi, Musashino-shi, Chofu-shi, Komae-shi, Yokohama-shi and Kawasaki-shi (including private business person, public)
※2 H26 12 a year moon Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism investigation

It is the current situation that the income and expenditure of route bus is very hard, and it is in money-losing route (※ 1), and about 70% of the line number that most travel of bus companies is the situation running with profit of some surplus lines.
Therefore, the income and expenditure is severe as motor carrier, and about 70% is the situation of deficit administration (※ 2) among bus companies where are higher than 30 national possession vehicles.
※From 1 bus industrial study session report, April, 2009 bass industrial study session
※2 H26 12 a year moon Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism investigation

There is route bus on the basis of roundtrip operation between station and housing complex and office. However, as for the commuter rush hour when passenger took most, intended to leave for station in the morning, and got a lot on, and was almost empty to direction that went to housing complex, and was unbalanced; is traveled.
Therefore, line where the income and expenditure does not balance with when a lot of commuter rush hour sees by roundtrip on line taking exists a lot. As personnel expenses suffer only from direction almost empty to cut even if they forward and traveled without changing so much at time to need, effective service is the situation that it is difficult.

We greatly distribute, and, in Yokohama-shi, two fare structures are applied.
It is system to pay the same fare regardless of carried distance so that rate receipt becomes simple and easy as there are many users in urban area including center of city.
[anti-kilometer section system]
We set section on the basis of constant distance and are system to pay well-thought fare depending on section where we got on. In the city, it is applied to some sections including circulation line in residential area and parallel line with railroad, tall and stout line.
Bus company determines which fare structure you apply after having stood on characteristic or profitability every line and it is appropriate or, by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, receives examination and will receive the authorization.

Called "the upper limit authorization system" to receive the authorization of the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport about the amount of upper limit that bus company applied for as for the fare of bus the system is such. Company is mobile, and they can set fare only by report if within the amount of this authorized upper limit.
In addition, cost price that added up standard expense and profit of open area (Yokohama blocks Keihin) becomes standard so that management efficiency of each bus company is not reflected in application of the amount of upper limit by fare.
※ Keihin block: Tokyo special ward, Mitaka-shi, Musashino-shi, Chofu-shi, Komae-shi, Yokohama-shi and Kawasaki-shi

About dimensions of the maximum of vehicle which can pass road, it provides that we do not surpass 2.5m in width, 3.8m in height, 12m in length in vehicle limit law. We can pass vehicle which is smaller than this without permission.
In addition, we sort in the Road Traffic Act enforcement regulations about type of car, and ride capacity assumes more than 30 things large-sized car.
Service vehicles of route bus are generally classified as follows in that.

About vehicle of bus

Trailer bus

Medium-sized bus


Wagon type vehicle (willow tit carryall)
Specifications (length X fuku)11m *2.5m9m *2.3m7m *2.1m5.4m *1.9m
※The maximum of commercially available vehicle
Passenger capacityAbout 80 peopleAbout 60 peopleAbout 30 people13 people
Indication of itoshodorofuku5.5m5.1m4.7m4.3m

Because the internal equipment and outside specifications are greatly different, as for the vehicle price of route bus, it cannot be said unconditionally by bus company, but, as for the body price of vehicle, it is 16 million-18 million yen by 19 million-20 million yen, minicoach vehicle by 22 million-25 million yen, medium size bus vehicle by trailer bus vehicle roughly. (in the case of Transportation Bureau)
In addition, about non-step type vehicle, Yokohama-shi issues subsidy to bus company for a part of the introduction expense. (municipal bus excludes)

Based on Road Transport Act, it is necessary for to submit application including business plan to country, and bus company to receive the authorization to found route bus.
We will list line, business area, name, position of office, the number of the placement vehicles every office, position, name of bus stop in this business plan and take local needs and width of road, profitability as business into consideration generally, and bus service company makes after discussion with person concerned.
This procedure takes three months as standard processing period after application is accepted.

Procedure like new establishment of line is necessary basically to change route of running route bus.

When we found bus stop (by law stop), bus company applies to country for name and position by Road Transport Act and will receive the authorization. (in the case of company which has already operated route bus, it becomes subsequent report.)
In application, security (use entitlement to of land) of place to install bus stop in, permission of traffic manager (the police) and understanding of local everybody are necessary.
It is said that subsequent report is enough for movement and name change of bus stop, but, like new establishment, agreement of related organizations is necessary.
In addition, at bus stop, service system and indication of the train time are prescribed, and it is prohibited earlier than this time that it departs.

Inquiry to this page

Road and Highway Bureau plan adjustment part Planning Division

Telephone: 045-671-3800

Telephone: 045-671-3800

Fax: 045-651-6527

E-Mail address [email protected]

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