Virus becoming causative agent of food poisoning has hepatitis A virus, rotavirus, adenovirus, but representative thing is norovirus.
In the food poisoning outbreak situation in the whole country of 2015, we see food poisoning due to norovirus according to etiologic agents, and the number of the cases, the number of patients becomes the first place together.
Norovirus multiplies with intestinal mucosa of Homo sapiens and causes symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, acute loose bowels (gastroenteritis), abdominal pain.
Symptom usually appears after the incubation period (time before developing after being infected) of 48 hours from 24 hours, and, after the infection, most are restored for less than three days. Outbreak is seen through one year, but occurs frequently in winter (roughly March from December).
As norovirus does not have vaccine, treatment is limited to symptomatic treatment.
There are a variety of cases on infection course as follows.
- Case which we ate without norovirus of feces of Homo sapiens flowing into the sea through sewage disposal plant, river, and accumulating to midgut gland of bivalves such as oysters, and heating and cooking the shellfish enough
- Case which pollutes food through cooking worker (mainly hands) infected with norovirus
- Case which catches infection from vomiting thing and excrement of patient without food directly
- Case which has droplet infection from Homo sapiens to Homo sapiens directly in home or Kyodo Shisetsu
Particularly, in late years example through food handler occurs a lot like 2. Because there is case that norovirus has subclinical infection (we do not show symptom even if infected), food handler needs attention particularly.
Raw oyster and midgut gland which we took out
- We perform (at central temperature 85-90 degrees Celsius more than 90 seconds) to heat and cook of ingredients
- We carry out hand-washing strictly
- When we have symptoms such as diarrhea or vomiting, we do not engage in cooking
- We use clean appliance, container
(deactivation of virus is effective for becoming sodium hypochlorite (chlorine concentration 200 ppm))
- We make it a practice of wearing of disposable gloves at the time of work such as arrangement or serving meals and appropriate exchange
- Vomiting thing and excrement handle sanitarily, and they sterilize