MDMA is chemical substance called 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Chemical structure is street of figure 1. It is kind of designer drug composed chemically. We are targeted for regulation of "the drug and psychotropic drug control method". In late years people taking between young people increase and, in Japan, become problem by popular name called "ecstasy (Ecstasy)". In late years, like graph 1 of bottom, haul increases tablets type designer drug such as MDMA year by year in Japan. In addition, in late years MDMA increases the arrest staff of designer drug criminal offense with 403 2005 in 117 2002, 2003 256, 2004 417. About comparison with the arrest staff of other drug criminal offenses in Japan, please see "(marijuana) about our Yokohama City Inst. of Health homepage cannabis".
Hauls of MDMA by the U.S. Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration (Drug Enforcement Administration: DEA) in the United States increase 5.5 million tablets or more 3 million tablets or more 1 million tablets or more in 2001 in 2000 in 174,278 tablets, 1999 in 196 tablets, 1998 in 1993. Hauls of MDMA by the American customs increase with 9.3 million tablets in 3.5 million tablets, 2000 in 1999, too. But, by rough estimate of 2002, it is thought that it decreased to 470,000 by rough estimate in 2003 in the United States that 676,000 people 12 years or older used MDMA within one month. There are many ratios of person who has used at least one time of MDMA for life in investigation (National Survey on Drug Use and Health) in the United States of 2002 in young people with 2.6% at 15.1%, 26 years or older at 3.3%, 18-25 years old at 12-17 years old. In addition, in the United States, it increases with 1.8 million in 2001 that person who used MDMA for the first time was 168,000 people in 1993. In Europe and America, there are names such as XTC, X, E, Empathy, Essence, Adam, Clarity, Lover's Speed, hug, beans, love drug, B-bombs, Bens, Cristal, Decadence, Dex, Disco biscuit, Eve, Go, Hug drug, Iboga, Morning shot, Pollutants, Speed for lovers, Sweeties, Wheels, too. MDEA(methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) are chemical substances of the system, too.
It is thought that there are many things manufactured by Belgium or the Netherlands of West Europe secretly in MDMA worldwide. It is thought that 80% of consumptions of the whole world are manufactured by these countries. It is thought being easy to obtain precursor and necessary chemicals and that it is the center of international trade as factor.
According to International Criminal Police Organization (in the Interpol :Interpol:International Criminal Police Organization:I.C.P.O.; headquarters Paris), MDMA confiscated in Europe increases with 14.1 million tablets in 5 million tablets, 1999 in 1998. MDMA confiscated throughout the world increases with 22 million tablets in 5.6 million tablets, 1999 in 1998.
Tablet called "ecstasy (Ecstasy)" may include MDMA, MDEA, drug except MDA. That is drugs such as methamphetamine, caffeine, ephedrine, cocaine, ketamine, codeine, DXM (dextromethorphan), PMA (paramethoxyamphetamine). By combination of MDMA and other drugs, the risk may further increase.
In addition, drug which is not MDMA is feigned as MDMA and may be given. For example, PMA (paramethoxyamphetamine) provides hallucination action and awakening with illegal synthetic drug. When PMA is feigned as MDMA and is given and takes, we are convinced that we took weak MDMA though we actually take PMA as action expression of PMA is later than MDMA, and it is intake that PMA is still superabundant enough by adding when it does not develop, and taking, and action of PMA can have possibilities to result in death to feel more strongly high feeling.
It resembles methamphetamine (methamphetamine) and hallucinogenic drug such as mescaline (Mescaline: 3,4,5-trimethoxy-β-phenethylamine) providing raising stimulant and hallucination such as amphetamine (amphetamine) which are able to cause excitement for chemical structure. MDMA may cause excitement and hallucination. About action to cause hallucination of MDMA, it is said that it is weaker than hallucinogenic drug such as LSD and mescaline. MDMA is usually often taken as tablet or capsule. We are inhaled, and it is injected, and it may be used with suppository. Influence of MDMA appears within 15 minutes after the dosage and stays for about 2-8 hours. However, mental storm, depression, sleep disorder, strong anxiety, delusion may be seen even if it passes only at the time of remedy for several weeks after taking.
MDMA raises heart rate and blood pressure. We may cause stake restriction of involuntary tooth. There is person holding teething ring and lolly in mouth saying that we will not cause stake restriction of involuntary tooth. Strain, nausea of muscle, blur of field of vision, fast ocular movement, faint, chills, sweat may be caused. In addition, it is dewatering from a large quantity of sweat when we fall into excessive exercise such as continuing dancing intensely by excitement action for a long time and takes in for water in large quantities and may be connected to dysfunction of high blood pressure, heart and kidney. There is person having heart attack and stroke, convulsions attack. MDMA influences body function of temperature control again, and serious malignant hyperthermy symptom may be caused. There is the death example that we take MDMA.
MDMA is toxic for nerve. We produce long-term injury to nerve cells releasing serotonin which is neurotransmitter when we take MDMA for long term, and defects of memory may be thought to be. It is thought that serotonin plays a role as adjustment such as feeling, memory, sleep, appetite in brain.
Dependence is in MDMA. We may be seized with earnest desire to want to take MDMA.
It is ... for prevention of drug abuse
Foregoing paragraph is drug which MDMA is illegal not safe medicine, and is harmful as wrote down by "action of MDMA". It will prevent you from yielding to temptation of MDMA. For prevention of drug abuse including MDMA, please refer to the following reference websites.
- NIDA - NIH - U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. ; MDMA (Ecstasy): It is p.1-3. NIDA INFO FACTS, March 2005
- Yukiko Makino, et al. ; Profiling of Illegal Amphetamine-type Stimulant tablets in Japan. ; Journal of Health Science, 49(2), 129-137, 2003.
- ONDCP (Office of National Drug Control Policy), Executive Office of the President, MDMA (Ecstasy): It is p.1-5. ONDCP Drug Policy Information Clearinghouse FACT SHEET, February 2004
- The National Police Agency Criminal Affairs Bureau organized crime measures department drug firearms measures section, "Drug, the firearms situation in 2005," p.1-71, February, 2006.
March 3, 2004 publication
The March 11, 2004 enlargement
The July 15, 2004 enlargement
The January 17, 2005 enlargement
Revision supplementary on February 1, 2005
Revision supplementary on February 22, 2006