Unexpected accident at home in Japan
According to the population dynamics investigation of Japan, 11,290 people a year die by unexpected accident in home in 2003 (Heisei 15) (cf. table 1). 65 years or older accounts for 8,654 people and 76.7%, and there is many when we see at age hierarchy. In addition, we occupy 1,625 people and 14.4% about 45-64 years old. We occupy 10,279 people and 91.0% at 45 years or older.
Table 1. The number of the death according to age hierarchy of unexpected accident in home, the death ratio, the death rate, the main pivot cause of death (2003)
|Age||The number of the death||Death ratio (%)||The death rate|
|The first place (ratio *) of the main causes of death of unexpected accident in home||Ratio * (order) of death caused by fall, fall|
|0||111||1.0||9.902||Other unexpected suffocation (82.9%)||5.4% (the second place)|
|1-4||102||0.9||2.206||Other unexpected suffocation (34.3%)||17.6% (the fourth place)|
|5-9||44||0.4||0.741||Revelation (38.6%) to smoke, fire and fire||20.5% (the third place)|
|10-14||31||0.3||0.510||Unexpected drowning and urine water (32.3%)||16.1% (the fourth place)|
|15-29||266||2.4||1.133||Unexpected poisoning by toxic substance and harm|
Revelation (25.9%) to material
|21.1% (the third place)|
|30-44||454||4.0||1.778||Unexpected poisoning by toxic substance and harm|
Revelation (22.2%) to material
|21.8% (the second place)|
|45-64||1625||14.4||4.623||Other unexpected suffocation (23.0%)||20.9% (the third place)|
|65-79||4224||37.4||22.718||Unexpected drowning and urine water (34.6%)||19.9% (the third place)|
|80 -||4430||39.2||78.658||Other unexpected suffocation (39.3%)||18.3% (the third place)|
|Total||11290||100.0||8.950||Other unexpected suffocation (31.9%)||19.4% (the third place)|
* : We set to 100 percent with the number of the death of unexpected accident in home of each age hierarchy.
(materials) 2003 population dynamics investigation (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare)
The main causes of death of unexpected death by accident at home are streets of table 2 below. "Other unexpected suffocation", "unexpected drowning, urine water" occupies 79.9% in 3 causes of death of "fall, fall". And, in "other unexpected suffocation" (3,603), "aspiration of food which produced airway obstruction" (2,432), "aspiration of contents of stomach" account for 90.7% with "aspiration of other objects which produced airway obstruction" (218) (619). In addition, "and "suffocation that it is unknown in detail" is included in classification of "other unexpected suffocation" "suffocation shown clearly of others" "enclosure to hypoxia environment" "suffocation by cave-in, the dropping earth and sand and other objects" "other unexpected air-dances and halter" halter unexpected suffocation in bed" as well as aspiration. There are many "unexpected suffocation in bed and halters" in 0 years old children. And, in "unexpected drowning, urine water" (3,230), "drowning, urine water in bathtub" occupies 92.9% with "drowning, urine water by fall to bathtub" (66) (2,936). In "fall, fall" (2,186) on "slip, trip and same plane by wobble "and fall at fall" (969), fall from stairs and step and the top occupies 82.8% with "fall from building or building" (415)" (425).
"Fall, fall" is each age hierarchy, and, as for the ratio among unexpected death by accident at home, exercise functions such as walks are relatively still low with 5.4% in undeveloped 0 years old children like upper table 1, but they are within 16.1-21.8% at age hierarchy except 0 years old and are relatively high. The prevention of fall, fall that is one of the main causes of death is demanded to reduce death caused by unexpected accident at home.
Table 2. The number of the death according to the cause of death of unexpected accident in home, the death ratio, the death rate (2003)
|The cause of death||The number of the death||Death ratio (%)||The death rate (100,000 pairs)|
|Other unexpected suffocation||3603||31.9||2.856|
|Unexpected drowning and urine water||3230||28.6||2.561|
|Revelation to smoke, fire and fire||1283||11.4||1.017|
|Revelation to unexpected poisoning by toxic substance and toxic substance||381||3.4||0.302|
|Contact with heat and high temperature material||124||1.1||0.098|
(materials) 2003 population dynamics investigation (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare)
For the prevention of fall, fall at home
Maintenance of living environment which fall, fall is hard to happen
- Thrust stable handrail which you did well, and stairs relax slant and should establish landing on the way. Light carpet putting down is hard to glide foot from soft and smooth floor, and it is thought that blow, shock is light even if we fall down. Become grippy, but on the other hand throw on foot, and fall down, and, about slipper, bake; it may be. Foot will produce spirited lightener even by night.
- Let's install restroom in each floor. We go up and down stairs in a hurry for restroom in the night, and let's avoid fall, thing falling to.
- Corridor puts stable handrail which we did well, and night, step will touch bright lighting.
- Thrust stable handrail which we did well, and bathroom should do on grippy floor. When we use mat drainboard, let's use thing with slipper.
- Width should be able to afford not to fall when Bet goes over and did. When we sat, foot should point out height of Bet properly in floor. It is easy to fall when too high, and it is thought that injury by fall gets heavy.
- Domestic lightener will put light that step is bright even by night. Lighting that is brighter than young people is necessary for elderly person in particular. Let's light not only living room but also stairs, the entrance, bathroom, corridor.
- Let's lose step in home. For example, we throw on foot in the protuberance and may fall down when there is prominence from floor including the threshold. Prominence from floor will make the threshold which there is not. We can make step small by putting expression stand at the entrance.
Attention in fall, life that we do not fall to
- When we step over thing, we throw on foot and are easy to fall down. It will prevent stepping over thing and from walking.
- Let's tidy in house. Let's clear up to step over thing, and to avoid walking.
- You should not polish floor too much. It is easy to fall down on soft and smooth floor.
- Hem of clothing will prevent it from being too long. We get entangled in foot and step with long hem by oneself and may fall down. Let's wear clothing which is easy to move the body.
- Let's turn off footwear which we just hang on foot such as slippers sandals. Let's wear shoes that size of grippy sole is good with low heel properly.
- When we hold onto thing, let's hold onto stable thing which we did well.
- When we go along stairs with big thing and heavy thing, we may fall. We subdivide not what all progress at 1:00 when we go along stairs with such a thing, and let's carry several times. In addition, it is said that accidents of stairs exceed 4 times of accident when accident when we go down is given (documents 1). When we go down, attention in particular is necessary.
Unexpected accident at home in the United States
Well, there is investigation that analyzed death caused by unexpected accident at home from the American death statistics from 1992 through 1999 (documents 2).
18,048 people a year die by unexpected accident at home in the United States from 1992 to 1999 on the average (a population of 100,000 people vs. death rate 6.83). The death rate of men (8.78) is higher than the death rate of women (4.97) in sex. The main causes of death of unexpected death by accident at home were fall, fall (death rate 2.25), poisoning (death rate 1.83), fire, burns (death rate 1.29). The prevention of fall, fall that is the main causes of death is demanded to reduce death caused by unexpected accident at home in the United States.
Fall, fall accident in case of decoration and clearings such as Christmas
In the United States, the decoration such as Xmas tree (figure 1) or illuminations is carried out indoor, the outdoors mainly on Christmas season in the winter season. It is known that fall, fall accident happens in the case of such decoration and clearing. Disease management, prevention center in America (CDC) investigates fall, fall accident in case of decoration between November 1 and January 31 and clearing, and they estimate that about 5,800 are treated for hospital first aid part in every winter (documents 3). As place causing fall, fall accident, the first place is 42.6% with ladder. The second place is 13.1% on roof. It is falls of verges of installation, disassembly of decoration on roof. The third place is 10.9% with furniture. It is fall from table chair, step which we got on for decoration, clearing. We may fall from stairs (2.9%) and porch (1.4%). In addition, we throw on foot for part and decoration of hem of Xmas tree and slip and may fall down (13.9%). In addition, we were missing in detail about 15.2%. As for the age, 62%, 50 years or older were 24% 15%, 20-49 years old 19 years or younger. As for the sex, 58%, woman were 42% man. As diagnosis result in hospital first aid department, bone fracture is seen in 33.8%. 51% of bone fracture examples are things by fall from ladder. In the United States, family having ladder always ready has investigation with 60% (documents 4). Ladder appeals to the nation for 42.6% and many things and thing that thing by fall from ladder warns United States CDC about fall from ladder with 51% about bone fracture example because many and prevents as place of fall, fall accident in case of decoration such as Christmas and clearing. In late years, in Japan, the decoration such as Xmas tree or illuminations may be carried out indoor, the outdoors mainly on Christmas season in the winter season. Ladder may be used for care for snow removing or garden tree of including verge of such decoration and clearing or roof. When it looks like it, we want to prevent fall accident from ladder.
The fall prevention from ladder
Let's be careful about the following things to prevent fall from ladder.
- Let's confirm before climbing thing that the ground raising ladder is strong, and is level. When there is careful person, we feel safe that we hold ladder in the ground.
- There will be center of gravity of body on the center of step of ladder.
- It will prevent you from standing by three steps from top step of ladder.
- We will clear up the neighborhood of position to put up ladder and the former neighborhood where ladder reached neatly.
- It will prevent ladder from standing in front of door to open and close.
- If it is work for perpendicular wall, 90cm or more will use ladder reaching the top from the upper end of part of working wall.
- When let ladder arrive to roof, of roof decrease, and 90cm or more will leave over ladder more on the top (cf. figure 2 below).
- When we lean ladder against perpendicular wall (cf. figure 2 below), let's regulate position of ladder in ratio of distance (b) from position to put up ladder for length (a) of ladders from the ground to the point of contact with wall 4 to wall 1.
- National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan, June 4, 1999 to investigate accident - actual situation in working papers (abstract) home about accident in investigation home in particular.
- Carol W. Runyan, Stephen W. Marshall, Anna E. Waller, et al. ; Unintentional injuries in the home in the United States
Part 1 Mortality: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 28, Issue 1, January 2005, p.73-79.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fall-Related Injuries During the Holiday Season---United States, 2000-2003. MMWR December 10, 2004;Vol.53;No.48:p.1127-1129.
- Stephen W. Marshall, Carol W. Runyan, Jingzhen Yang, Anna E. Waller, et al. ; Prevalence of selected risk and protective
factors for falls in the home, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 28, Issue 1, January 2005, p.95-101.
February 21, 2005 publication