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About the death rate, case fatality rate (case fatality rate), the death ratio

Last update date November 8, 2019

The death rate of Ebola hemorrhagic fever?

"The death rate of Ebola hemorrhagic fever is high with 50-90% and may see description called ...". This description is false and "case fatality rate (case fatality rate) of Ebola hemorrhagic fever is high with 50-90% and is ..." definitely. We calculate by both case, the death rate such as the death rate or case fatality rate (case fatality rate) of a certain disease A of a certain disease A and case fatality rate (case fatality rate) breaking "the death toll of disease A which there is" by division, but are different why you break. In the case of the death rate, we divide by total population. In the case of case fatality rate (case fatality rate), we divide by "the number of patients of a certain disease A". Therefore, for example, it will be said, "half of total population of Country B people has died of Ebola hemorrhagic fever." when it is said, "the death rate of Ebola hemorrhagic fever was 50% in Country B.". If "case fatality rate (case fatality rate) of Ebola hemorrhagic fever was 50% in Country B.", it will be said, "half of patients with Ebola hemorrhagic fever died in Country B". In Japan, it is malignant neoplasm (cancer), heart trouble (heart disease), the cause of death such as cerebro-vascular disease (stroke) to get high rank of the cause of death that are high in the death rate in 2002. In Japan, neither patient due to Ebola hemorrhagic fever nor dead person occurs in 2002. Therefore, in Japan, the death rate of Ebola hemorrhagic fever is 0% in 2002.

There are some sanitary indexes to calculate using the death toll. Here, we refer to the death rate, case fatality rate (case fatality rate), the death ratio.

About the death rate

"Death rate" = "death toll in a fixed period of time"/"total population"

The death rate (death rate, mortality rate) mentioned above is also known as rough death rate (crude death rate). If there is for total population in countries such as Japan, the United States of America, there is in Tokyo and Yokohama-shi, administrative unit such as Kawasaki-shi. For a fixed period of time, it is usual that one year is used. As percentage per a population of 1,000 people, we often display. We will calculate the death rate in Japan of 2001 (Heisei 13). For total population of Japan, we use a population of 125,908,000 people of October 1, 2001 (Heisei 13) by estimate. The death toll of one year of Japan is 970,331 people in 2001. When we calculate

"Death rate" = 970,331/125,908,000 = 0.007707 = 7.707/1,000

The neighbor, the death rate in Japan of 2001 (Heisei 13) become 7.707 (a population of 1,000 pairs).

Well, when we think about what kind of people who are sick, and die there are many, we count the death toll according to disease and calculate the death rate according to disease.

"Death rate of a certain disease C" = "death toll by a certain disease C in a fixed period of time"/"total population"

This death rate is called the death rate according to the cause of death. If there is for total population in countries such as Japan, the United States of America, there is in Tokyo and Yokohama-shi, administrative unit such as Kawasaki-shi. For a fixed period of time, it is usual that one year is used. As percentage per a population of 100,000 people, we often display. In late years, about cancer (malignant neoplasm) running alone with the first place of the cause of death in Japan, we will calculate the death rate according to the cause of death of 2001 (Heisei 13). The death toll due to one-year Japanese cancer is 300,658 people in 2001. For total population of Japan, we use a population of 125,908,000 people of October 1, 2001 (Heisei 13) by estimate. When we calculate,

"Death rate of cancers" = 300,658/125,908,000 = 0.002388 = 238.8/100,000

The neighbor, the death rate of cancers in Japan of 2001 (Heisei 13) become 238.8 (a population of 100,000 pairs).

Well, it is this death rate, but there is inconvenient point when we are going to use for international comparison. It is to need total population when we calculate. In the world, there are a lot of countries where do not know total population well. It will be said that we do not understand the death rate when we do not know total population. Therefore it is used by international comparison that the death ratio that we can calculate when we do not know total population included developing countries in well.

About the death ratio

The death ratio is calculated by statistics of the dead. By the cause of death or age of the dead, we classify and count the death toll. When small classification E is included in big classification D,

"Death ratio of small classification E among macrotaxonomy D" = "death toll of small classification E"/"death toll of macrotaxonomy D"

It becomes in this. %We often display in this. We will calculate the death ratio of cancer (malignant neoplasm) among all causes of death of 2001 (Heisei 13) in Japan. The death toll due to one-year Japanese cancer is 300,658 people in 2001. The death toll of one year of Japan is 970,331 people in 2001. When we calculate,

"Death ratio of cancer (malignant neoplasm) among all causes of death" = 300,658/970,331 = 0.310 = 31.0/100

As for the neighbor, the death ratio of cancer (malignant neoplasm) among all causes of death in Japan of 2001 (Heisei 13), it is 31.0%. The death ratio according to the cause of death among all causes of death in Japan of 2001 (Heisei 13) is from the first place (malignant neoplasm) to the tenth place and is just what of table 1 below. In addition, in Japan, the death ratio of cancer (malignant neoplasm) according to part among all cancers (malignant neoplasm) may be calculated whether there are many people dying of cancer in what part. The first place is malignant neoplasm of the trachea, the bronchus and the lungs, and 18.3%, the second place become 16.6% for malignant neoplasm of stomach. It will wait to smoke.

Table 1. The death ratio according to the cause of death among all causes of death in Japan of 2001 (2001) age
The cause of deathThe death tollThe death rate (a population of 100,000 pairs)Death ratio (%) among all causes of death
All causes of death970,331770.7100.0
Malignant neoplasm300,658238.831.0
Heart trouble148,292117.815.3
Cerebro-vascular disease131,856104.713.6
Pneumonia85,30567.88.8
Unexpected accident39,49631.44.1
Suicide29,37523.33.0
The senility22,14517.62.3
Renal failure17,69014.01.8
Liver disease15,84812.61.6
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease13,06910.41.3

Well, we classify at age and count the death toll, and there is the death ratio to calculate. You should know age even if you do not know the cause of death. It is sanitary index that is easy to be relatively calculated in country of any place. It is death ratios (PMI 50: Proportional Mortality Indicator 50) among the death total number 50 years or older. %We often display in this.

PMI 50 = "death tolls 50 years or older"/death total number
PMI 60 = "death tolls 60 years or older"/death total number
PMI 80 = "death tolls 80 years or older"/death total number
PMI 85 = "death tolls 85 years or older"/death total number

We live long so that sanitary state should be good, and it is thought that high people increase as for the age of the dead. It is thought that sanitary state is good so that 100% are near. Japanese PMI 50 is levels that are globally high in 93.6% in 2,000 years.

About case fatality rate (case fatality rate)

"Case fatality rate of a certain disease C" = "death toll by disease C which there is in a fixed period of time"/"number of patients of disease C which there is in a fixed period of time"

When the acute fashion that can become the cause of death of illness was caused, case fatality rate (case-fatality rate) is used well. A fixed period of time is period that is enough to make sure of all deaths due to a certain disease C without staying for the period of the epidemic. Progress is pursued whether all patients die for disease C until we become clear. As for the case fatality rate of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, 50-90%, case fatality rate of new type of pneumonia SARS are considered to be 14-15%.

It is different from case fatality rate (case fatality rate) and the death rate. Not to make any mistake, let's have a good command of term.

[the enlargement 1] about the death ratio in Japan of 2011 (Heisei 23)

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of announcement depends on "the general condition of 2011 vital statistics" (the number of the decisions) on September 6, 2012 (Heisei 24).

For total population of Japan, we use a population of 126,180,000 people (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau) of October 1, 2011 (Heisei 23) by estimate.

The death ratio according to the cause of death among all causes of death in Japan of 2011 (Heisei 23) is street of table 2 below.

Table 2. The death ratio according to the cause of death among all causes of death in Japan of 2011 (2011) age
The cause of deathThe death tollThe death rate (a population of 100,000 pairs)Death ratio (%) among all causes of death
All causes of death1,253,066993.1100.0
Malignant neoplasm357,305283.228.5
Heart trouble194,926154.515.6
Pneumonia124,74998.910.0
Cerebro-vascular disease123,86798.29.9
Unexpected accident59,41647.14.7
The senility52,24241.44.2
Suicide28,89622.92.3
Renal failure24,52619.42.0
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease16,63913.21.3
Liver disease16,39013.01.3

Malignant neoplasm (cancer) became the cause of death first place in substitution for cerebro-vascular disease after 1981 (Showa 56). About 1 of 3.5 people of all deads dies of malignant neoplasm (cancer).
Heart trouble (myocardial infarction, angina) became the cause of death second place in substitution for cerebro-vascular disease after 1985 (Showa 60). About 1 of 6.5 people of all deads dies of heart trouble (myocardial infarction, angina).
Pneumonia became the cause of death third place in substitution for cerebro-vascular disease in 2011 (Heisei 23). About one of ten people of all deads dies of pneumonia.
Cerebro-vascular disease (cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage) became the cause of death first place in substitution for tuberculosis in 1951 (Showa 26). Drop was seen in peak in 1970 (Showa 45). In 1981 (Showa 56), it became the cause of death second place in substitution for malignant neoplasm (cancer). In 1985 (Showa 60), it became the cause of death third place in substitution for heart trouble (myocardial infarction, angina). In 2011 (Heisei 23), it became the cause of death fourth place in substitution for pneumonia. About one of ten people of all deads dies of cerebro-vascular disease (cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage). In addition, tuberculosis is 2011 (Heisei 23), the cause of death 25th place (2,162 death tolls).
Unexpected accidents increased under the influence of the Great East Japan Earthquake largely in 2011 (Heisei 23) and became the cause of death fifth place from the cause of death sixth place (40,732) of 2010 in substitution for the senility. About 1 of 21 people of all deads dies by unexpected accident. In addition, about 1 of 24 people of all deads dies of the senility.

Conventionally, as the three major causes of death, malignant neoplasm (cancer), heart trouble (myocardial infarction, angina), 3 diseases of cerebro-vascular disease (cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage) have attracted attention. Because pneumonia became the cause of death third place in substitution for cerebro-vascular disease in 2011 (Heisei 23), it will be necessary to warn pneumonia as the four major causes of death that pneumonia increased in future.

[the enlargement 2] about the death ratio in the United States of America of 2011 (Heisei 23)

Of published by national health Statistics Center of October 10, 2012 (Heisei 24), United States of America CDC "the death statistics depend in (for a while the fixed number) in 2011".

For total population of the United States of America, we use a population of 311,591,917 people (United States Department of Commerce Bureau of the Census: U.S. Census Bureau) of July 1, 2011 (Heisei 23) by estimate.

The death ratio according to the cause of death among all causes of death in the United States of America of 2011 (Heisei 23) is street of table 3 below.

It is the death ratio according to the cause of death among all causes of death in the United States of America in (2011) year table 3 in 2011
The cause of deathThe death tollThe death rate (a population of 100,000 pairs)Death ratio (%) among all causes of death
All causes of death2,512,873806.5100.0
Heart trouble596,339191.423.7
Malignant neoplasm575,313184.622.9
Chronic lower respiratory tract disease143,38246.05.7
Cerebro-vascular disease128,93141.45.1
Unexpected accident122,77739.44.9
Alzheimer's disease84,69127.23.4
Diabetes73,28223.52.9
Influenza and pneumonia53,66717.22.1
Renal failure45,73114.71.8
Suicide38,28512.31.5

The first place of the cause of death in the United States of America is heart trouble (myocardial infarction, angina). In the United States of America, heart disease measures are big problems.

When they pay attention to the death rate (a population of 100,000 pairs) and the death ratio among all causes of death and compare table 2 and table 3, much one is heart troubles (myocardial infarction, angina) in the United States of America. Much one is malignant neoplasm (cancer), cerebro-vascular disease (cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage), suicide in Japan.

References

  1. The general condition (the outside site) of 2001 vital statistics (the number of the decisions) : Homepage of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
  2. Index extra edition, Vol. 49 No. 9 consecutive number of volumes No. 768 of trend, the public welfare of national hygiene, association of public welfare statistics, August 31, 2002.
  3. The general condition (the outside site) of 2011 vital statistics (the number of the decisions) : Homepage of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
  4. U.S. Census Bureau | Population Estimates (the outside site) | National Totals: Vintage 2011 (the outside site).
  5. Donna L. Hoyert, Ph.D. and Jiaquan Xu, M.D.; Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2011, National Vital Statistics Reports (the outside site), Vol. 61, No. 6, October 10, 2012, p. 1-64.

May 22, 2003 publication
The June 13, 2012 enlargement
Revision supplementary on October 29, 2012

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